Gemstones
Treatment/Benefits
Care Instructions
Abalone
None
Avoid heat, household chemicals, steam, sudden temperature changes, ultrasonic cleaning
Agate (see Chalcedony)
Sometimes heat-treated and / or dyed to enhance bands in layers
Normal Care
Alexandrite
None
Normal Care
Almandite (see Garnet)
None
Avoid sudden temperature changes
Amazonite
Sometimes heat-treated or irradiated to enhance color; sometimes stabilized with a colorless wax, oil, plastic or hardening agent to enhance appearance
Avoid household chemicals, steam, ultrasonic cleaning
Amber
Sometimes heat-treated, dyed or surface-treated to deepen color; sometimes pressed/compressed with extreme pressure and heat to fuse together small pieces of natural amber
Avoid household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Amethyst (see Quartz)
Occasionally heat- treated to enhance color
Normal Care
Ametrine (Quartz)
None
Normal Care
Ammolite (Ammonite Shell)
Sometimes stabilized to increase durability and to improve appearance
Avoid heat, household chemicals, ultrasonic cleaning
Andalusite
Occasionally heat-treated to enhance color
Normal Care
Apatite
None
Avoid household chemicals, steam, ultrasonic cleaning
Aquamarine (see Beryl)
Occasionally heat-treated to enhance color
Normal Care
Aventurine (Quartz)
None
Normal Care
Azurite
Occasionally filled with epoxy or resin to create smoother surface
Avoid household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Azurmalachite
Rarely filled with epoxy or resin for smoother surface
Avoid household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Beryl(also listed by type)
Occasionally dyed, heat treated, irradiated to improve color; usually oil-, wax- and/or resin-filled increase durability and to improve appearance
Avoid heat, household chemicals, steam, sudden temperature changes, ultrasonic cleaning
Bloodstone (Chalcedony)
None
Avoid household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Blue Topaz
Usually irradiated and heated to produce blue color
Avoid steam, sudden temperature changes, ultrasonic cleaning
Calcite
Dyed to enhance color; stabilized with colorless plastic to increase durability and to improve appearance
Avoid heat, household chemicals, steam, sudden temperature changes, ultrasonic cleaning
Canary Aqua
Usually heat-treated to enhance color
Avoid excessive heat
Carnelian (see Chalcedony)
Sometimes dyed and/or heat-treated to improve color
Avoid excessive heat
Cat's Eye effect
None
Normal Care
Chalcedony (see Quartz)
Usually dyed and/or heat-treated to produce different colors
Normal Care
Chrome Diopside
None
Avoid household chemicals, steam, sudden temperature changes, ultrasonic cleaning
Chrysoprase (see Chalcedony)
None
Avoid household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Chrysocolla
None
Avoid household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Citrine (Quartz)
Usually heat-treated or irradiated to improve color
Normal Care
Coral
Usually dyed or bleached to enhance color; sometimes stabilized with colorless plastic increase durability and to improve appearance; sometimes stabilized and compressed under extreme pressure and heat to bind together small pieces of natural material into a larger whole
Avoid household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Corundum (also listed by type)
Usually heat-treated, diffusion-treated or irradiated to enhance color; occasionally dyed, oiled, glass-filled to enhance clarity
Avoid heat, household cleaning solutions, ultrasonic cleaning and repairs; they can cause damage, as this treatment is not considered permanent or stable
Demantoid (see Garnet)
None
Avoid heat, household chemicals, steam, sudden temperature changes, ultrasonic cleaning
Diamond - clear
None
Normal Care
Diamond - colored
Usually heat-treated or irradiated for color
Normal Care
Doublet
A doublet consists of two joined segments to increase durability
Avoid chemicals, stem/heat, ultrasonic, sudden temperature changes
Drusy Quartz
coated and or dyed to enhance color
Avoid heat, household chemicals, re-polishing, steam, sudden temperature changes, ultrasonic cleaning
Emerald (see Beryl)
Usually oiled to improve color; usually oil-, wax and/or resin-filled to increase durability and/or to improve appearance
Avoid household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Fluorite
Usually heat treated or irradiated to enahnce color
Avoid household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Garnet (also listed by type)
None
Avoid sudden temperature changes
Gaspeite
Occasionally stabilized with plastic/resin increase durability and to improve appearance
Normal Care
Goshenite
None
Avoid sudden temperature changes
Grossularite (Garnet)
None
Avoid sudden temperature changes
Heliodor
Irradiated for color enhancement
Normal Care
Hematite
None
Avoid sudden temperature changes
Hessonite (Garnet)
None
Avoid sudden temperature changes
Hiddenite (Spodumene)
Irradiated to enhance color
Avoid exposure to excessive light, rough handling, sudden temperature changes
Howlite
Sometimes dyed to enhance color and to simulate turquoise and other stones
Avoid steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Indicolite (Tourmaline)
Usually heat-treated to enhance color
Avoid exposure to excessive light, rough handling, sudden temperature changes
Iolite
None
Avoid sudden temperature changes
Ivory & Bone
Usually bleached or dyed to enhance color; sometimes stabilized increase durability and to improve appearance
Avoid household chemicals and ultrasonic, may discolor in time
Jade
Usually dyed and/or heat-treated to enhance color; occasionally wax-coated to enhance appearance
Normal Care
Jasper (Chalcedony)
Occasionally dyed to enhance color
Normal Care
Jet
None
Avoid steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Kornerupine
None
Avoid rough handling, sudden temperature changes, stream, ultrasonic cleaning
Kunzite (see Spodumene)
Usually irradiated to enhance color
Avoid exposure to excessive light, rough handling, sudden temperature changes
Kyanite
Occasionally heated to enhance color
Avoid rough handling, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Labradorite
None
Avoid rough handling, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Lapis Lazuli
Usually dyed and wax-coated to enhance color and shine
Avoid household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Lepidolite
None
Normal Care
Malachite
Occasionally infused with wax or epoxy to enhance durability and appearance, and to create smooth surface
Avoid household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Mammoth (see Ivory)
Usually bleached, dyed and/or stabilized to improve color or increase durability and to improve appearance
Avoid household chemicals and ultrasonic, may discolor in time
Marcasite
None
Avoid household chemicals, stem/heat, ultrasonic, sudden temperature changes
Mariposite
None
Normal Care
Moldavite
None
Avoid sudden temperature changes
Moonstone
None
Normal Care
Morganite (see Beryl)
Commonly heat-treated to enhance color
Normal Care
Mother of Pearl
Usually bleached, dyed, irradiated and/or coated to produce colors
Avoid household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Muscovite
None
Normal Care
Mystic Topaz
Surface-enhanced with a coating to enhance color
Avoid abrasive and harsh chemicals, do not re-cut stones
Obsidian
None
Avoid household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Onyx (see Chalcedony)
Usually dyed to enhance color
Normal Care
Opal
Sometimes infused with wax, oil or plastic to enhance appearance and durability
Avoid household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Pearl
Usually bleached, dyed, irradiated and/or coated to enhance appearance
Avoid household chemicals (including hairspray and cosmetics), steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Peridot
Sometimes infused with oil, wax , resins and/or colorless hardened substance to enhance appearance
Avoid household chemicals, sudden temperature changes, steam, ultrasonic cleaning
Petalite
None
Avoid rough handling, ultrasonic cleaning
Petrified Wood (see Chalcedony)
None
Normal Care
Pietersite
None
Normal Care
Prasiolite (praziolite) (Quartz)
Usually heat-treated to enhance color
Avoid household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Prehnite
Occasionally stabilized increase durability and to improve appearance
Avoid household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Pyrope (Garnet)
None
Avoid sudden temperature changes
Quartz (also listed by type)
Usually dyed and/or heat-treated to produce different colors; sometimes surface-enhanced with a coating to enhance color
Avoid abrasives, harsh chemicals, steam, ultrasonic cleaning; surface enhanced-stones should not be re-cut
Quartzite
Sometimes stabilized with colorless resin increase durability and to improve appearance
Normal Care
Rainbow Calsilica
Sometimes stabilized and compressed with a binding agent under extreme pressure and heat to bind together small pieces of natural material into a larger whole
Avoid household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Rhodochrosite
None
Avoid household chemicals, rough handling, and excessive heat.
Rhodolite (see Garnet)
None
Avoid sudden temperature changes
Rhodonite
None
Normal Care
Rock Crystal (Quartz)
None
Normal Care
Rosenite (Garnet)
None
Avoid sudden temperature changes
Rubellite (see Tourmaline)
Usually heat-treated or irradiated to enhance color
Avoid sudden temperature changes
Ruby
Usually heat-treated, diffusion-treated and/or irradiated to enhance color; occasionally dyed, oiled, glass-filled to enhance clarity
Avoid heat, household cleaning solutions, ultrasonic cleaning, repairs; they can cause damage, as this treatment is not considered permanent or stable
Rutilated Quartz
None; needle-like rutiles are natural characteristics
Avoid heat, household chemicals, sudden temperature changes, steam, ultrasonic cleaning
Sardonyx (see Chalcedony)
Usually dyed to enhance color
Avoid household chemicals, stem/heat, ultrasonic, sudden temperature changes
Sapphire
Usually heat-treated, diffusion-treated and/or irradiated to enhance color; occasionally dyed, oiled, glass-filled to enhance clarity
Avoid heat, household cleaning solutions, ultrasonic cleaning and repairs; they can cause damage, as this treatment is not considered permanent or stable
Sard
Sometimes dyed and/or heat-treated to enhance color
Avoid excessive heat and light
Scapolite
Usually irradiated to enhance color
Avoid steam and ultrasonic cleaning, avoid exposure to strong light
Serpentine
Usually dyed or waxed to enhance appearance or to alter color
Avoid steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Shell
Usually dyed to produce colors
Avoid household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Smokey Quartz
Occasionally heat-treated or irradiated to enhance color
Avoid heat, household chemicals, sudden temperature changes, steam, ultrasonic cleaning
Sodalite
None
Avoid household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Spessartite (see Garnet)
None
Avoid sudden temperature changes
Sphene
None
Avoid household chemicals, sudden temperature changes, and rough handling
Spinel
None
Normal Care
Spodumene (Hiddenite) (Kunzite)
Irradiated to enhance color
Avoid exposure to excessive light, rough handling, sudden temperature changes
Sugilite
Occasionally dyed to enhance color
Avoid household chemicals, stem and ultrasonic cleaning
Sunstone
None
Avoid household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Tanzanite (see Zoisite)
Usually heat-treated to enhance color
Avoid steam, ultrasonic cleaning and sudden temperature changes
Tiger Iron
None
Normal Care
Tiger's Eye (see Quartz)
Usually heat-treated, dyed or bleached to enhance color
Avoid harsh chemicals, sudden temperatures changes
Topaz (colors other than blue)
Usually heat-treated to produce different colors; sometimes surface-enhanced with a coating to enhance color
Avoid abrasives, harsh chemicals, sudden temperature changes, steam, ultrasonic cleaning; surface-enhanced stones should not be re-cut
Tourmaline
Green and blue tourmaline are usually heat-treated to enhance color; yellow and red tourmaline are usually irradiated to improve color
Avoid sudden temperature changes, ultrasonic cleaning and steamer
Tourmalinated Quartz (see Quartz)
None; needle-like quartz rutiles are natural characteristics
Avoid household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Triplet
A triple has three segments, or two segments separated by a layer of colored cement to increase durability
Avoid chemicals, stem/heat, ultrasonic, sudden temperature changes
Tsvorite (see Garnet)
None
Avoid sudden temperature changes
Turquoise
Usually stabilized with plastic to enhance durability and color; sometimes stabilized and compressed with a binding agent under extreme pressure and heat to bind together small pieces of natural material into a larger whole
Avoid household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaning. Perspiration and cosmetics may alter color.
Unakite
None
Avoid household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Variscite
None
Avoid household chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaning
Verdelite (Tourmaline)
Usually heat-treated to enhance color
Avoid sudden temperature changes, steam, ultrasonic cleaning
White Aqua (Beryl)
None
Normal Care
Yellow Beryl (Heliodor)
Usually heat-treated to enhance color
Avoid sudden temperature changes, ultrasonic cleaning and steamer
Zircon
Usually heat-treated to create blue color
Avoid abrasives, exposure to excessive light, rough handling